The contribution of the sugar diffusional uptake to the total transport activity was determined by adding active transporter inhibitors to the medium. The catalytic activity of complexes 1—6 has been tested with regard to the epoxidation of styrene and, in the case of 15 and 6other alkenes have been epoxidized using peracetic acid as oxidant in different media, among which glycerol, a green solvent never used in epoxidation reactions using peracetic acid as oxidant. The tissues were loaded on filter paper for 5 min. Here, we examined the mRNA relative amount of the SWEET protein family, which could be involved in sugar transport during germination since high [ 14 -C]-glucose and mainly [ 14 -C]-sucrose diffusional uptake were found in embryo tissues. The levels of mRNA of two genes that encodes key enzymes in the Suc synthesis—MAS glyoxylate cycle enzyme and SPS Suc biosynthesis enzyme —were increased with the imbibition time only at the scutellum Figure 3 B,Cwhich suggests the active synthesis of Suc in that tissue.

  • SWEET Transporters for the Nourishment of Embryonic Tissues during Maize Germination

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    Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden markov model: Application to complete genomes.

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    The scutellum is close to the embryo axis and is rich in lipids and capable of Suc synthesis [ 12 ]. For Librarians. Shannon J. Embryos and embryo axis isolated from the maize seeds and later imbibed at different times were able to transport Suc and Glc to the tissues, but the Glc uptake was higher than the sucrose uptake [ 16 ]. Please review our privacy policy.

    The lipid content was determined by weight.

    However, the Suc content at the scutellum decreases with the imbibition time, in contrast to the steady or high level of Suc in the embryo axis Figure 4 A.

    To sustain these activities during the first two phases of the germination, the embryonic tissues must mobilize their accumulated metabolites. Figure 8.

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    We found that the scutellum and the embryo axis isolated from dry and imbibed seeds have the capacity for uptaking Suc and Glc by active and diffusional uptake. Therefore, in the two main tissues that comprise the embryo—the scutellum and embryo axis—we analyzed the sugar and lipid content, the sugar transport activity and the relative messenger RNA mRNA levels of several genes, including the SWEETs during the germination process.

    The organic phase was loaded into microtubes, and the CHCl 3 was evaporated to dryness.

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    In: Bergmeyer H. Results 3. Chen H. Archive Journals. Ratio transcript was calculated according to the Pfaffl method [ 30 ], normalizing with the invariant housekeeping gene 18s and also with the value of the mRNA amount found in the tissues from non-germinated seeds 0 h. The endosperm surrounds the scutellum and consists mainly of dead cells full of starch and other nutrients; its external surface is made of a single layer of living cells called aleurone.

    SWEET Transporters for the Nourishment of Embryonic Tissues during Maize Germination

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    Sugar availability varies according to the germination time and tissue Figure 4 and could affect the SWEET transcripts amount, a possibility that was suggested to regulate the ZmSWEET4c level of transcripts at embryogenesis [ 10 ].

    Genes Basel. The lipid mobilization in both tissues could be due to the activation of the glyoxylate cycle to contribute to the Suc biosynthesis. HHS Public Access. Another possibility is that the Suc is exported for the nourishment of the embryo axis, which may explain why Suc levels in the imbibed embryo axis are high or at the same level as in the dry tissue, and may also justify the increased hexose levels in the embryo axis since the embryo axis does not have Suc biosynthesis capability and does not start the starch degradation until late in the germination process.

    Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens.

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    1. Cell signaling mechanisms and metabolic regulation of germination and dormancy in barley seeds. The structural changes occurring in the endosperm, such as cell wall degradation, alters the type and concentration of sugars that may impact the embryo transport capability.